Dynamic Modelling of Heart Rate Response Under Different Exercise Intensity

Steven W Su1, 2, 3, Weidong Chen*, 1, Dongdong Liu1, Yi Fang1, Weijun Kuang1, Xiaoxiang Yu1, Tian Guo1, Branko G Celler3, Hung T Nguyen2
1 Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
2 Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
3 Biomedical Systems Lab, School of EE&T, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

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© Su et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Tel:/Fax: 86-21-34204302; E-mail:


Heart rate is one of the major indications of human cardiovascular response to exercises. This study investigates human heart rate response dynamics to moderate exercise. A healthy male subject has been asked to walk on a motorised treadmill under a predefined exercise protocol. ECG, body movements, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) have been reliably monitored and recorded by using non-invasive portable sensors. To reduce heart rate variation caused by the influence of various internal or external factors, the designed step response protocol has been repeated three times. Experimental results show that both steady state gain and time constant of heart rate response are not invariant when walking speed is faster than 3 miles/hour, and time constant of offset exercise is noticeably longer than that of onset exercise.

Keywords: Heart rate, treadmill exercise, modelling, nonlinear behaviour, portable sensor, non-invasive measurement.